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Embarking Blog

...on the journey towards restoration of all things

Filtering by Category: Conference

What if... ?


Was listening to Dr. Simone Ahuja this morning @tedxgrandrapids, and she had a number inspiring or thought provoking ideas. First, was this idea of what she calls, Jugaad Innovation. Jugaad refers to a quick way of solving a problem in a pseudo McGyver sort of way... using the things around you to come up with a solution to a current problem.

Second, she described the "maker revolution" and the DIY movement in the developed world, and the new innovations happening in the developing world where scarcity is a daily reality, and it made me think about those people I've met who are intentionally entering into the developing world and creating unbelievably innovative new ways to approach the world.

This reminded me of a couple of things. First, I think about IDEO, the company born out of Steelcase that observers everyday reality and does rapid prototyping to try to make things better. Second, I was challenged by the idea that scarcity reframed is abundance, and that scarcity can sometimes drive innovation because the imposed limits on resources drive the necessity for innovative thinking. Third, is it possible that we're thinking about poverty inappropriately? What if we approached scarcity in developing countries as an opportunity to encourage and create opportunities for innovation?

What if...

It's the question that drives innovative thinking in a time of need. What if we asked "what if" more often? What if we stopped saying "can't" and "don't" and "that won't work" and we started to dream again? What if we believed that limits were doorways to greater creativity and we started using more our brains more effectively?

What if scarcity really were reframed?

As I prepare to leave for Ethiopia next week, I've obviously been thinking a lot about African. I was privileged to meet with some people a couple of days ago who are running a hospital in worn torn South Sudan, and yesterday I spend some time with an Anglican Bishop from Uganda. I'm getting inundated lately with Africa - a place years ago I swore I would never go. So, I was recently listening to TED Africa: The Next Chapter, and heard one speaker talking about Africa as one of the most resource rich places in the world - from every type or resources you can think of - people, natural, mineral, etc. So many of us think of Africa merely as a place of poverty, need, and struggle. How might we think of Africa as a place of potential?

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David Platt at Urbana 2012


Urbana is an incredible missions conference for college students originally held on the campus of the University of Illinois and put on by Intervarsity Christian Fellowship - one of my favorite organizations. My wife and I attended this conference long ago, and it impact us for life. Though at the time we thought we would be "goers" to Africa and China respectively, we ended up being "senders" and "supporters" instead. The impact this conference has had on our life and commitment to missions is still inestimable. The conference happens every three years, and if you can send a college student, you won't be sorry. Save some money over the next two years and send someone that you sense God is prompting. If you haven't seen David Platt's talk from Urbana this year, I would encourage you to watch it. However, as a friend of mine said, "WARNING....Don't watch this unless you want your life to change drastically..." PS... if you have not yet read "Radical" or "Radical Together" by David Platt, I would also encourage these books at seminal reading in personal missional thinking and drive towards action.

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What Motivates Us - Daniel Pink


Biological Drive

Reward and Punishment Drive

Meaning Drive

Two Dimensional view of human beings is one in which we try to dampen the biological drive and pump up the reward and punishment drive, but it doesn't work very well.  What researchers have found is that this focus on the reward and punishment drive works and increases productivity with simple "mechanical" processes, but when more cognitive functions were necessary, the higher the cognitive function required actually found that reward and punishment decreased productivity.  The research is so good showing the "carrots and sticks" don't work, and yet it is routinely ignored in organizations every day.

Two False Assumptions in Organizations:

  1. Human beings are machines, and if you hit the right buttons, they'll respond the way you want them to.
  2. Human beings are blobs.  The alternative to this would be that humans are active and engaged.

There are, instead, 3 enduring motivators:

  1. Autonomy: Management is a technology from the 1850's designed to get compliance.  We don't want compliance in our organizations anymore.  Management leads to compliance. Self-direction leads to engagement.  People need autonomy over their time, their team, their tasks, and their technique.  A great example of this is the 20% autonomous time that companies like Google have instituted. (cf. this Google blog post)
  2. Mastery: The single largest motivator, according to one study, is making progress.  As human beings, we feel the most loyal to the organization, the most useful, the most meaningful is when we are making some sort of progress and growth and change and impact.  In order to have mastery, we also have to have effective feedback.
  3. Purpose: There is a rise in recent years of what could be called the purpose motive.  In the last decade we haver learned that the profit motive comes unhooked from the purpose motive, bad things happen.

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When Leaders Emerge - Terri Kelly


Terri Kelly is the President and CEO of WL Gore and Associates, founders of Gore technology (Gore-Tex).  I've been looking forward to this talk since last year when one of the speakers spoke about the unique leadership culture at Gore which is not built with a traditional hierarchical structure, but organized around communities and teams in which the employees themselves decide who the real leaders are and what projects they want to work on.  Terry calls is a "peer based organization" in which everyone is concerned about the success of others in the organization.  This reminds me of a story I just ready about a similar company in the book Multipliers: how the best leaders make everyone smarter by Liz Wiseman.    Here is what Wiseman says about Hexal (sold in 2005 to Novartis) and the Struengmann brothers on p. 42-43:

Hexal doesn't have jobs, per se, and they don't have an org chart... Jobs were loosely created around people's interests and unique capabilities.  They called their approach the "ameba model."  Here's how it works... At Hexal, you could work wherever there was energy.  Through encouraging their employees to use this heat-seeking approach, they were able to utilize people at their highest point of contribution.  They didn't box people into jobs and limit their contribution.  They let people work where they had ideas and energy and where they could best contribute.  They let talent flow, like an ameba, to the right opportunities.

Terry spoke about "leadership on demand" as opposed to a "fixed hierarchy" where decisions go up and down the ladder.  The lattice organization is an organization in which everyone is connecting with everyone in their network - people being able to go to whoever they need to go to in the organization, rather than having "ladder" organizational structure where you may have 2-3 specific people you work through.  In this system, leaders lead by influence rather than by "direction".  This give the employee commitment and ownership, and the energy transfers to the whole organization rather than only by specific leaders.

The key to not having totally chaos is having alignment around shared, foundational values and beliefs.  Gore's 4 major values are the following:

  1. Everyone can make a difference, give them the tools
  2. Belief in small teams, to feel connected
  3. Same boat, vested collectively together
  4. Long term view, not short term results. First and primary is work environment, driving innovation, reaching out to communities.

Because the organization works by passion, influence, and good ideas rather than by power or position, selling your ideas becomes very important, as does peer review and collaboration to vet ideas as well as to make them better.  In this way, people become more motivated to work in the areas that they will be the most effective and impactful because their review is done by the peers they work with and around on these projects, which creates a built in mechanism for momentum, commitment, and contribution.  Those who make the greatest contribution, then, is paid accordingly.

This also creates an environment where there are more "coaches" than "bosses."  A coach, or personal sponsor, is committed to helping another person make their maximum contribution to the organization.  This person is not a supervisor, but a coach, encourager, "cheerleader".  There is clear separation between leadership roles and coaching in that coaches are not leaders, but those who are committed to the personal contribution of the person they are coaching.

Gore plants rarely get larger than 250.  Terry said,

"One of the core ideas is learning how to divide so that we can multiply."

The idea is that multiplication of small communities with great ideas that are highly productive, with shared values and high productivity, will grow the organization in a faster and more effective manner.

Waterline Concept: if you are considering an investment that could put the organization in jeapordy, don't do that because it could sink the ship.  You can drill holes above the waterline, but anything that could harm reputation, financial success, or the work environment (below the waterline) is too risky.

Leadership is defined by followership in the sense that followers follow the leaders they want to.  This, I suppose, makes John Maxwell's words that "if no one is following, you're just out for a walk."  This creates a culture of real leadership that is based on people who follow because they want to, not because they have to or because of their or someone else's place, position, or power in the organization.   When, in a survey of Gore employees they were asked if they are a leader in the organization, 50% answered yes, which is powerful in terms of distribution of the leadership role, equipping, and empowering of every person in the organization.

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The Land Between - Jeff Manion


(Download a free chapter of Jeff's book "The Land Between" here:

Jeff did a great job of exegeting Numbers 11, and what he calls "The Land Inbetween."  He equated these time in our lives when we are stuck wandering in the desert between land of blessing and land of blessing to the time when Israel was wandering between fertile Egypt and the fertile crescent of the promise land.  He reminded us that the story of Moses and the people is a real story of real people going through real problems and issues.  He reminded us that the land between is fertile ground for complaint. (Numbers 11:7-9) I laughed hard when he read this passage, and said it had to be read in a "whiny voice."   The land of between is not only fertile ground for complaint, but it goes further than that to the place of meltdown. (Numbers 11:10-15)  Moses is done, fed up, and says, "Kill me right now!"  We have all been in this place when the finances are gone, we're jobless, stuck in an unhealthy marriage, nailed with cancer, in a broken relationship, when our friends betray us.

Often we're prepared for some disappointment, but not necessarily for years of disappointment.  After awhile we just get crushed by ongoing disappointment after disappointment.

And God doesn't leave Moses alone, but says that he will provide to help Moses carry the burden.  God provides other people to shoulder the load with us in the land between. (Numbers 11:16-17) What if God provides not only for Moses and the Israelites in the land inbetween, but also for us?  What does it look like for us to leave our hands open to let go of the crushing anxiety that is beating us down.  What if he's good?  What if he provides for us, like he provided lunch instead of a lecture for Moses?

Why do we respond like the Israelites do, thinking we are better off on our own without God?  It's interesting when the people complain that God responds, and we find that the land between is fertile ground for God's discipline (Numbers 11:18-20).  Pain, from God, is not to hurt us, but it is for redemptive purposes, to rescue us from something.  He does not hurt us to hurt us.

The land between is fertile soil for transformational growth. But, God says that in order for transformational growth to happen, we have to trust him in the land between.  It is in this space that we learn to pray, to depend, and to trust God.

Jeff used a great metaphor of battling roommates.  Complaint comes unexpectedly into the house and resists eviction.  Trust seeks to move into the house, too, but can't live with complaint, and eventually, when we begin to trust God, trust is the thing that evicts complaint.

May God bless you int he land between.

May you guard your heart.

May trust grow.

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When Leaders Fall, Adam Hamilton


Francis Schaeffer Institute: 30% of pastors admitted to some sort of sexual failure in their ministry

Adam Hamilton had a tough talk today.  He admitted himself that this was not a fun, motivational talk, nor one he delighted to give.  It has to deal with the moral failure that so many leaders fall into - often, and particularly some sort of sexual/ relational failure.  Hamilton himself experienced the moral failure of two of his colleagues who developed an inappropriate relationship with one another.

As he continues to speak right now, let me just mention how close this is to my heart for a couple of reasons.  First, I have several friends who have been personally affected by such a failure by a parent, friend, or close colleague.  Second, I've seen the damage in my own denomination and congregations I'm close to who have experienced this very thing.  Third, because it's not just leaders who struggle with this.  I'm working with a number of couples right now whose marriages are on the rocks because of some major failure... and all of these are within the church.  Lastly, I have had some people close to me and my family that have affected our lives personally.

Here are 4 ways a church or organization can approach these moral failures:

  1. Ignore it and hope it would go away.
  2. Be evasive and say the two pastors were leaving because of personal reasons.
  3. Scarlet letter approach - add more shame and exile.
  4. Approach it with transparency, honesty, and compassion.

In such situations, many people look to see how the church will approach these situations in order to a) either reinforce their greatest fears that we really are the Pharisees or b) to be surprised that the church can respond in a way that is human, biblical, compassionate, and filled with truth seasoned with grace.  The hope is that such a defining moment will be lived out in a way that is closer to the second.

What are some things that churches can do to help avoid sexual misconduct among and between staff members?

  1. Develop policies and staff covenants
  2. Talk about it among the staff.  Have the sex talk with the staff.  We are wired for reproduction, intimacy, and sin.  The combination of these three can often lead us to places of self-destruction.  Even if you have the feelings - even if they're normal - don't share them.

5 R's for Resisting Temptation

  1. Remember who you are:  pastor, father, husband, child of the King.
  2. Recognize the consequences of your actions.  "Will I feel better after I do this?"  "Will I feel more or less human?"  "Will I be proud or ashamed?"  "Who will be affected by my actions?"  "What will my congregation thing about this?"
  3. Rededicate yourself to God.  In the moment, Stop, Drop, and Pray.
  4. Reveal your struggle to a trusted friend.  When you share it with a friend, it loses its power.
  5. Remove yourself from the situation.  Jesus said, sometimes there are radical things you need to do to avoid sin.

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Leading on the Edge of Hope, Christine Caine


There is really no way to capture the passion we just heard from Christine Caine in notes on a blog.  This is a woman who, as she said, is still "old-school enough" to truly believe that that Jesus is the hope of the world.  She challenged us to live into this moment - our moment in which there are great needs in the world and to step up and be the church that God longs for.

I was moved when Christine was telling a story in which she was challenged by a woman who was just being rescued from sex trafficking slavery who said, "If what you're saying about your God is true, why didn't you come earlier?"  She said this amazing statement, and one we should all reflect deeply on:

It is not that God did not hear your cry; but I am so sorry that it has taken me so long to hear it.  I honestly cannot think of anything in my life that was so important that I shouldn't have come earlier.

There is a great challenge - not only in terms of human sex trafficking - but in all the ways that God's heart breaks for his world.  Isn't it true that we are so often so busy with so many things that are merely much ado about nothing and are neglecting the very deep things that moved the Father to send Jesus into the world in the first place?

Towards the end of her talk, Christine talked about hope.  She talked about how courageous her little 4 year old becomes in the middle of darkness with a simple flashlight in her hand - with that little light, she'll go in darker.  While they were in Walmart buying a flashlight, her daughter said, "Mommy, can we please go find some darkness?"  It doesn't take much light to dispel the darkness, it simply takes the courage to step in for "Greater is he that is in me than he that is in the world."

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Never, Ever, Give Up, Jim Collins


Jim began with one of his famous phrases, made popular in his excellent book, "Good to Great:  Why some companies make the leap... while others don't":

Good is the enemy of great.

He also said very importantly that "Greatness is largely a matter of choice, not circumstances."  That's a powerful sentence.  Certainly circumstance plays a part, and Jim acknowledged this later saying that pride and hubris shows itself often when leaders don't acknowledge at all the luck and blessings that have come their way without any of their doing.  However, circumstances alone do not move people to become companies that are built to last, that move from good to great, or become the reasons why the might fall.

Jim focused on the 5 stages in his recent book, "How the Mighty Fall and why some companies never give in" dealing with organizations and leaders who lose momentum and fall from a place of strength and greatness.  What's really helpful about these 5 stages is the truth that "You can be sick on the inside, but still look strong on the outside."  It's important to note that these stages are largely self-inflicted.  Unlike disease, organization decline is more about what you do to yourself that what happens to you.  It's also important to note that the fall doesn't come until stage 4, so you're over 50% on the way before you have presenting issues.

Stages of "How The Mighty Fall"

  1. Hubris born of success leading:  The signature of the greatest leaders is their humility.  They had a passionate focus to go after the vision and values with all they have, but remained humble in the process.  Here, Collins spoke of an outrageous  arrogance that does not see the balance between disciplined decisions and the blessings of circumstance and even luck.  Of course, disciplined decision-making is key, but it's also key to be humble about the things that are out of our control that often contribute greatly to our success.
  2. An undisciplined pursuit of more:  More is not bad in itself.  It is the over-reaching, the undisciplined pursuit of more.  Patrick's Law:  if you allow growth to exceed the ability of the fantastic people to execute, you have been undisciplined in your growth.  If you do not have fantastic people in who fit the 4 C's (see Bill Hybels), you have to wait and not go after more until those people are in place.  One challenging thing Jim said (which, I think, is true) is that if you do not have the right people in place with the character, competence, chemistry, and fit to your culture, then you must wait for the more for which they are required for execution.  "Bad decisions with good intentions are still bad decisions."
  1. Denial of risk and peril:   In order to this, the great leaders and organizations have to have faith (optimism, positivity, etc.), but also have to confront the brutal facts (cf. the chapter on this in Good to Great.)  Optimism without the facts is just a wish-dream, and facts without faith alone is less than motivational and won't move anyone forward.  Failing to look at the real risks and assess the situation, and then take the strong leap of faith with a serious understanding of the risks involved is just plain foolish.
  2. Grasping for Salvation:  Disciplined people engaged in disciplined thought and taking disciplined action make deliberate movement in a determined direction move the fly-wheel.  Those who begin to grasp for salvation have lost their intentionality and disciplined approach.  Their energy dissipates and ultimately leads to decline.
  3. Capitulation to irrelevance or death:  Lasting organizations had a reason to go endure that is more than just money or success.  They had an answer to the question, "What would be lost if we ceased to exist?"  They are driven by a reason that goes beyond money and success, Big Hairy Audacious Goals (BHAG's)

To Do List:

  1. Take a team/ organizational diagnostic.  Check out for 3 free diagnostic tools for your teams and organizations.
  2. Count and account for blessings. When we forget to count all the good things that happen to us, we're on our way to the first stage.
  3. What is your questions to statements ratio, and can you double it in this next year?
  4. How many key seats do you have on your bus?  How many of the seats are filled with the right people?  What are your plans to get the right people in the right seats?  Are you on the way up as a team, or on the way down?
  5. (missed it... but so did everyone else it appears)
  6. With your team of the right people, create an inventory of the brutal facts.
  7. What are we disciplined to stop doing?
  8. Define results and show clicks/ milestones on the fly wheel.
  9. Double your reach to young people by changing your practices without changing your core values.
  10. Set a BHAG rooted in your purpose to reinforce that your work is never done.

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Willow Creek Leadership Summit, Opening Session


Bill Hybels had a great opening session.  He started with a simple leadership principle from his journal:  Leaders move people from here to there.  It's not anything new.  It's the vision piece, the picture of the preferred future.  It's the thing you get excited about and say, "It will be bliss on a stick when we get there."  It was a really helpful reminder that "The first play is not to make there sound wonderful.  It's to make here sound awful."  That the preferred future begins with a "holy discontent" as Hybels has said in the past.

"Long before MLK gave his "I have a dream speech," he gave hundreds of "We Can't Stay Here" speeches."

He used some great examples, including moving Willow's food pantry onsite:  "Imagine if at the end of our weekend services... I could say, go right over there and we'll give you groceries for the week."  The reality is, though, that there are many people who say, "there, shmere, what's wrong with here?"  They don't want to move.  Hybels has given a number of good talks (I have several in my own journals) on the change process and important steps along the way, and this is another.

One of the other important pieces of leadership is hiring fantastic people.  Bill reminded us that hiring fantastic people requires Character, Competence, Chemistry (cf. Bill's book Axiom).  He added a new C, that he calls Culture.  Understanding the culture of the organization and the culture of leadership is key to moving from here to there, and is as important at Character, Competence, and Chemistry.

I love Hybels focus on his staff.  Here are a couple thing he said:

"We don't offer potential staff persons a tidy career opportunity, we offer them a mission they can lay their lives down for."

"Building teams of fantastic people who fit our culture is one of the joys of leadership."

"Do you view the assembling of fantastic people as a privilege, as a leadership essential?"

He also said that there are usually 3 reactions when a person resigns.  Bill invited us to imagine that as we sit here we get a text from someone or an email saying they've resigned.  Here are the 3 normal reactions:

  • Phew
  • Aaugh... I feel bad about that, but we're going to be ok.
  • Read the text.  Read it again.  Run into the lobby and vomit because you've lost someone who feels irreplacable.

I love the questions that arise out of this for any leader:  what would be your reaction for each person on your staff?  Do you have a staff that you would be in the 3rd category for every single one?  Which of the 3 reactions would your boss have if he or she received the text from you?

So, if you do have some of these fantastic people, how to keep them on your staff, excited, passionate, and engaged?  Here are some things Bill suggested:

  • Regularly refill the vision bucket.  With his typical phrase, "vision leaks," Bill reminded us again that we have to continue to refill the vision bucket with our staff.
  • Put mile markers along the way, and celebrate.  What keeps people on the journey is a sense of hope that they're going to get there someday.  And it's important to celebrate along the way, not just at the end, even if you have to make up mile-markers.  When is the last time you had a party for progress along the way, not just the destination?

The last thing Bill talked about was hearing from God.  He passionately talked about the whispers of God in his own call to faith, to plant a church, and to serve other pastors.  He spoke about hearing from God through the word, lowering the ambient noise, repairing our antennas, and listening and obeying the whispers deep in our hearts.  Bill was right on when he said, "I don't think you get from here to there without hearing from God in the process."  This gets at, in my opinion, one of the great failures of many of us who are leaders.  Too often we merely see the picture of the preferred future in the beginning, but we don't listen to God and his ever-present whispers along the way.  Too often, the initial picture is fuzzy and we don't fully understand it, and God continues to lead all the way to the end, all long the way.

Some Whispers:

  • Step Up
  • Take the Risk
  • Stand Firm
  • Start a Church
  • Apologize Now
  • Admit Your Mistake
  • Make The Tough Decision
  • Get Help
  • Stop Running From God
  • Slow Down (for some of us, velocity is killing our soul)
  • Show Your Heart
  • Let Others Lead
  • Feed Your Soul
  • Bless The Team
  • Make the Ask (some of you know here "there" is, but you're just chicken to make the ask)  Courageous
  • Do Something Impactful (some of you have been pounding the same nail your whole life)
  • Come Clean
  • Embody the Vision
  • Celebrate the Victories
  • Speak the Truth
  • Pay the Price
  • Count Your Blessings
  • End the Secret
  • Check Your Motives
  • Set the Pace
  • Give God Your Best
  • Get Physically Fit
  • Serve Your Spouse and Kids
  • Pray
  • Humble Yourselve

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And: The Gathered and Scattered Church


Last week I read And: The Gathered and Scattered Church by Hugh Halter and Matt Smay, and am finally blogging a few of my thoughts.

I had heard of this book initially after a few friends were at Exponential this year.  I couldn't go because I'd just been at the Q Conference in Chicago.  However, I probably should have been there because I'm in the throes of planting Fair Haven's first multi-site right now called South Harbor Church (a week and a half from the first preview, with launch on 10.10.10.), but I couldn't give up the Q experience.

Overall, I enjoyed the book, and will recommend it to several people - particularly certain chapters.  Let me begin with a critique, and end with some things I liked.

The premise of the book is basically to stop fighting over different models of the church and honor one another in our differences but seek to use whatever models work in seeking the kingdom.  The book talks often of mega and mini churches, and of missional and attractional.  These are important dichotomies on the one hand - and ones I've struggled with myself.  On the other hand, it's too easy a division to hang a hat on and there are deeper issues than the book goes into.  Ultimately, I love title, but think the book got into too much about Adullam (Halter and Smay's church), and only scratched the surface of these deeply ecclesiological issues of our time.

"And" does a good job of articulating the need for working together through various models with the same ends in mind, but in my estimation never gets to some of the deeper issues about how much a model influences the end goals.  For instance, Halter does a good job talking about moving people out of consumerism and into transformation and into dying to oneself for Christ.  He nails the issue that disciples are not consumers (chapter 3), but then never really deals with models of doing church these days that promote consumerism of a Christian sort.  In an effort to be unifying, Halter sometimes borders on not being critical enough where healthy critique is necessary.  Other times, though he says that both types of models are helpful, but then tends to tip towards favoring the missional impulse.  One question that would be more helpful to me would be around how the mega church can remain missional enough to be Christian and how does the missional church become attractional enough to stay alive and have an influence beyond a small group.  Overall, I think he tries to be balanced between multiple models, but speaks only out of the Adullum experience.  It would've been nice to see a balanced approach in this book with multiple models all expressing the unifying aspects of the gathered and scattered church.

Where "And" does hit the nail on the head in terms of what's necessary for both the scattered and gathered, missional and attractional, mega and mini is the incarnational community.  Here is how it's put on page 66:

"Whether you're starting from scratch and moving down the missional flow or starting from an existing structure and moving up, you'll notice that the center of the process is 'incarnational community.'"

By incarnational community, they mean here bands of people with the missional heart of God integrating their lives with those who don't know Him and are doing something intentional about.  Simplistic, yes, but true none-the-less.  Too many churches lose the core mission of God to reach his people far and wide and lose their very nature as church altogether.

For me, chapter 4, "Spiritual Formation for Missional Churches" was the best chapter in the book.   This chapter really deals with how to move someone from being far from God through the discipleship and growth process to the place of mobilization in ministry (in their words from Observance to Preparation to Participation to Partnership).  This is such a key issue, and one that churches tend not to do well.  We call it a "people pathway" or a "people process" - but who wants processed people!  However, churches today desperately need a pathway of discipleship that includes evangelism, grounds people in the basics, and moves them towards influential leadership in the use of their gifts.  With studies like Reveal and churches realizing their lack of depth, discipleship pathways are getting popular.  Chapter 4 is all about how to go about that, focusing on the transitions in stages, and developing a clear pathway.  I like it. This chapter is one that I will recommend several people read.

Chapter 5 is also very helpful in describing the difference between modalities (structures focused on caring for those already in the church) and sodalities (those that push toward those on the outside).  This is a helpful chapter, finding its roots in the missiology of Ralph Winter.  This is where the book gets closer to living up to its name.  I think if the book had moved this chapter earlier (after the biblical foundation of Chapter 1) and then built upon it, dealing with the centripetal and centrifugal forces necessary for the gathered and scattered church to remain in balance, it would've felt more balanced and helpful.  This chapter is one that I will recommend several people read (like church planting interns, student and children's ministries staff, seminarians, etc.)

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